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Knowledge of

  Evaluation of hips...  

Kettners Fenya HD picture.

The best known method for the evaluation of the hips is the one where both the shape of the hip ball and the acetabulum are beaing evaluated, and how well the ball fits into the bowl. This is what we know as a HD result here in Denmark is from A which is the best result down to E which is the lowest rate you can get.

Breeding limit / breeding recommendations is for most breeds is at C, and dogs with C hips as the lowest level to be used for breeding, and requires to be mated with a dog with A or B


To its right are the most well-known evaluation scales that are used in the world.

FCI is of course the one Danish Kennel Club is running for.


It is different here in Denmark, which veterinarian respectively ABTDK and ABCD uses to assess the hips. We can definitely recommend that you send your hip pictures to the OFA in the United States. The results you get from OFA is in fact applicable worldwide, and their judgment method works like Danish Kennel Club, where there are 3 vets independent of each other, which evaluate the images. To get a "finished" OFA result, the dog must be over 2 years when the x-rays taken. Is the dog under 2 years old, the evalution result will be "prelim", that is, a temporary permit.

At the OFA's website you can print out a form, which you must bring to his veterinarian when the dog is x-rayed, because the veterinarian must complete this and send along pictures to OFA.


The second evaluation type is Penn Hip. Here you measure looseness in the hips.

A Penn Hip results are evaluated using a series of 3 images.
One is taken in the same way as a normal HD picture, from where ir is being evaluated if the dog has dysplasia.

One where the legs are out to the side and hip ball is pushed completely into the hip bowl, and finally one where the legs are out to the side and pulled so far out of the hip bowl as possible. These 2 pictures they use to measure how much the hip may give in, and from here comes the result. It is only a few veterinarians in Denmark approved to make Penn-Hip, at Penn-Hip's website you can see a list of these vets, and it's a good idea to call around to a few different, and hear how often they are doing this type of hip x-rays. The more the better, as veterinarian expertise is higher.

Thompsons Dreaming Dixie hips in this Penn-Hip foto.
  Prevention of hd / AD...  

HD can both be hereditary, but it is also easily influenced by the puppy's growth. Therefore there is much as a dog owner you can do to best avoid your dog gets bad hips.


It is important that you give your puppy a proper feed adapted to the size of dog you have, as there is a big difference between what a small breed puppy must have in relation to large breed puppies.

A small breed grows faster and their diet should contain more protein and more fat than a large breed puppy, which should grow somewhat slower.
puppy wrong, you risk it grows too fast, and its bones can not keep up, resulting in an increased risk for for example bad hips and elbows.

Besides a proper food that is properly formulated for the size of dog you have purchased, you can provide some vitamin supplements next.
This can be Vital Anamin, or Glucosamine combined with MSM, or shark cartilage, all of which helps to maintain the dog's


A puppy does not have the same staying power as dogs older than themself, and it is therefore not advisable to the pup to play too often with an older dog, when the pup to so will exert themselves to keep up with the older, rather than to sit down and relax or take a nap.

If you have your puppy to live with an older dog, it would be a good idea to pay attention to the pup to and let it get rest from the older dog, when you can see that the speed and energy is not the same anymore. As well as keeping them separate when they are alone at home, so they do not play and the pup to overwhelm it selve.

Play with other dogs

Walks, running and run beside bikes.

When walking your new puppy , it's a good idea not to go longer then it does not become tired. If you, however, comes out on a long journey, and the puppy gets tired and sits down or you almost need to pull to get it with, we recommend that you lift the puppy up and carry it the last way.
The reason for this is that the puppy may not overdo themselves, as this will provide a greater load on the puppy's bone structure, since this is far from being fully developed.

It is also recommended that, where possible, avoid stairs with the puppy, and if you have to go up or down the stairs, it would be best to lift the puppy up and carry it up and down, as long as they do not weigh more than you can this. However, the puppy does not take damage to go up or down a small staircase on the walk , as long as it is not something that happens very often , this will only strengthen the motor skills to the try.

It is best to wait with long runs or bike rides until the puppy is about 1 ½ years old. As this is also very hard for the puppy's bones as long as they are not properly developed.


It is not recommended to do agility (A jumps and like that) with the puppy until after 1 ½ years of age, when these challenges on the field gives a great load on the dog's leg.

If you want to enhance the dog's muscles, we recommend going to the dogs swimming with it, since it is weightless in the water and thereby will not have the same load on the bones. Get expert help and advice at the dogs swim you have chosen to go to and read the dog's signals so you can stop before it gets tired.

Long walks on the beach in the sand we can also not recommend, as this will also impact on the puppy / young dog bones, as the sand is heavy to step in. Not that you should stay away from the beach, many dogs enjoy running here and play and maybe even jump into the water, but you just do not use the beach as a place to regularly walking her puppy / young dog.



NCL (Neuronale Ceroid Lipofuscinosis) / CCL (Canine Ceroid Lipofuscinosis) is a hereditary decease.

You can test the American Bulldog by a blood sample, to see if your dog has the gene.

This is how the decease spreed:

NCL FREE - The dog do not have tne gene, and can therefor not be ill or give the gene to the puppies.

NCL Carrier - The dog have 1 gene, and can therefor not be ill, but are able to transfer the gene to it's puppies.

NCL Infected - The dog have 2 genes, and will become ill, and the dog are also able to transfer the gene to it's puppies.


The knowledge we have today:

If you breed a FREE to a FREE, all the puppies will be FREE as well.

If you breed a FREE to a Carrier, around ½ of the puppies will be FREE and the other ½ will be Carriers.

If you breed a Carrier to a Carrier, around 1/4 will be FREE, ½ will be carrier and 1/4 Infected.

  the breed standard...  

The American Bulldog is an athletic, temperamentally sound, medium to large size dog that possesses great strength, agility and confidence.

The expression should reflect intelligence and alertness.

The sturdy, powerful, yet compact frame is characteristically stockier and heavier boned in the males and more refined in the females.

Some aloofness with strangers and assertiveness with other dogs is accepted.

**Note: The American Bulldog National Alliance judges are specifically charged with the responsibility of evaluating the temperamental stability as well as structural conformation on all dogs.

Any dog demonstrating shy or timid behavior, or that is out of control, presenting a danger to other dogs or people, will be dismissed from the ring at the judges discretion.

In officially recognizing two distinctive types of American Bulldogs, Standard and Bully, the ABNA requires that they be judged separately.





Males should range from 22-26 inches at the withers.

Females should range from 21-25 inches at the withers.


Standard: A leaner, more athletic dog in appearance.


Bully: A thicker, more powerful dog in appearance.


Weight should be in proportion to height in both types.

The dog should be well conditioned, not overweight or underweight.

One inch over or under the standard is a minor fault for both types.

Anything over one inch is a major fault for both types.





Solid white, white with varying degrees of brindle, brown, red, and tan is acceptable. Solid brindle, brown, red, or tan with no visible white is a cosmetic fault. Solid black, blue, black and tan, tri color, and any degree of merle is a disqualification. A full black mask is a major fault.


*Tri color is white with black and tan patches.


**Merle is a dilution of overall body color (black or red) with splotches of darker color giving the effect of "merling", or"marbling", not to be confused wit brindle, that gives the effect of "striping".





Short, less than one inch in length, varying from soft to stiff.

Long, feathering, or fuzzy coats are a disqualification.





The head should be relatively large and broad in proportion to the size of the dog.

It should be flat on top giving a squared appearance.

There is a defined furrow between the eyes with a distinct, deep stop.

The head is well muscled throughout with prominent cheeks.

An excessively narrow head is a major fault in both types.


Standard: Generally box to wedge shaped in appearance, with a slightly shallower stop and less wrinkles.


Bully: Generally box to round shaped in appearance, with a more definitive stop and more wrinkles.





The eyes should be round or almond in shape, medium size, and wide set.

Dark brown is preferred, other colors are accepted, but are a cosmetic fault.

Black eye rim pigment is preferred, other colors are accepted, but are a cosmetic fault. Crossed and/or nonsymmetrical eyes are a major fault.

Visible haw is a fault based on the severity.





The muzzle should be relatively broad and square.

The jaws are well muscled, displaying great strength.

Lips are full, but not pendulous.

Black pigment on the lips is preferred, other colors are accepted, but are a cosmetic fault.

An excessively narrow muzzle is a major fault in both types.

Wry jaw is a disqualification in both types.


Standard: Muzzle should be 30% to 40% of the overall length of the head.


Bully: Muzzle should be 25% to 35% of the overall length of the head.


A muzzle longer or shorter than the standard is a minor fault.


Any breathing problems displayed in the ring will be considered a disqualification.

The dog may be dismissed from the ring at the judges discretion for the welfare of the dog.





The teeth should number 42 and be large in size.

Small and/or crooked teeth are a minor fault.

Missing teeth are a structural fault and will be penalized.

Working dogs will not be penalized for broken teeth.

Should medical removal of teeth be needed, documentation from a veterinarian is required.





Standard: Reverse scissors is preferred.

A scissor bite or moderate underbite, up to 1/4 inch is acceptable.

Even bite is not preferred.


Bully: Undershot up to 1/4 inch is preferred.

1/8 to 1/2 Undershot is acceptable.

Even bite is a major fault.

Scissor bite is a disqualification.


Both Types: Anything over the accepted standard is a structural fault, and will be penalized based on the severity.

Teeth should not be visible when the mouth is closed.





Black is the preferred color, with shades of red or brown being acceptable.

A lack of pigment is a cosmetic fault.





The ears should be medium in size and may be either forward flap or rose, with no preference.

Cropped ears are a cosmetic fault, due to the fact that they have been cosmetically altered and can not be judged in their natural state.


**In countries where it is illegal to crop the ears, owners must show a certification from a veterinarian for dogs that have been altered.





The neck should be medium in length, muscular, slightly arched, and taper from shoulders to head.





The shoulders should be well muscled with good definition and wide sloping blades giving the appearance of great strength.



Chest: The chest should be deep and moderately wide giving the appearance of power and athletic ability. It should be well balanced, not excessively narrow or wide.





The body should be well balanced and compact, while powerful and athletic in appearance.

There should be a good spring of the ribs and the loin moderately tucked.

The body should not be excessively long.





The back should be broad, showing great strength, with a slight roach over the loins. The back should not be narrow or swayed.


Standard: Straighter more level topline.


Bully: Straighter more level topline is preferred, appearance of being slightly higher in the rear is acceptable.






The front legs should be straight with moderate to heavy bone.

Pasterns should be strong and upright.

Weak pasterns are a major fault.

Elbows that are bowed or twisted are a fault from minor to a disqualification, based on severity.


Rear: The rear legs should be well muscled, moderately angulated and parallel. Pasterns should be strong and upright.

Weak pasterns are a major fault.

Cowhocked is a fault from minor to a disqualification, based on the severity.





The hindquarters should not be as wide as the shoulders, but should be well balanced, thick and muscular.





The tail is set low, thick at the base, tapering to a point.

The tail should reach the hocks in a relaxed position. T

ails above or below the hocks are a minor fault.

Tails that are kinked, screw, or end in a complete circle are a minor fault.

Docked tails are a minor fault due to the fact that the tail has been cosmetically altered and can not be judged in it's natural state.


** In countries where it is illegal to dock tails, owners must show a certification from a veterinarian for dogs that have been altered.





The feet should be of moderate size.

The toes should be well arched and close together.

Crooked toes are a minor fault.

Splayed feet are a fault from minor to major, based on the severity.





The American Bulldog should move smoothly with speed, power, and agility.

 There should be no rolling or clumsiness.

The topline should remain level as the front legs are reaching, and the rear legs propel the dog forward.

As speed increases the feet move towards the center of the body for balance.

Dogs should not paddle, pace, or have a short stilted stride.

Front and/or rear legs crossing is a major fault.

Any dog showing lameness will be dismissed from the ring for the welfare of the dog.



* Dogs with disqualifying faults will not be dismissed from the ring, but will not be considered for placement.

** Note: Males without two testicles, dogs that are deaf, and dogs that have been spayed or neutered are not allowed to compete in the conformation ring. Females in heat are not to be shown in the conformation classes, and are not allowed in the proximity thereof.